Health Care

Diabetes Mellitus Types, Causes, and Symptoms.

Definition of diabetes……

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder of impaired carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorder in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. It is characterized by classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).


Classification of diabetes

There are four types of diabetes and have different causes, symptoms, and treatments.

1) Type-1. It is known as Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

2) Type-2. It is known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

Type-3. Diabetes mellitus is associated with other conditions or syndromes.

4) Type-4. Gastrointestinal diabetes mellitus (GDM)

Causes And Risk Factors……….

Type-1 D,M

It is also known as IDDM or juvenile onset diabetes. It is inherited and is common in identical twins. Enviro n-mental factors such as viruses are supposed to start autoimmune processes that destroys b-cells. Health maintenance in type-1 dIabetes includes:

  1. Maintaining blood glucose at normal levels.
  2. Preventing hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia by closely monitoring the blood glucose levels and taking early actions.
  3. Performing daily foot-care.
  4. Preventing complications of diabetes by removing or treating risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, use of drugs etc.
  5. Early examinations, for e.g. ophthalmic exami- nations etc.

Type 2 D.M…..

It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetic or adult-onset diabetes . It involves both genetic and environmental factors. Obesity is main risk factors, health promotion action includes:

  1. Diet management and avoidance of foods rich in refined sugars and saturated fats.
  2. Maintaining ideal body weight from childhood.
  3. Screening high risk groups,……
  • a] people with high hypertension.
  • b] people with hyperlipidemia.
  • c] women with previous gestational diabetes.
  • d] people having history of recurrent infections
  • e] Age over 40 years.
  1. performing daily foot care.
  2. .preventing hyper and hypo glycemia.
  3. to reduce obesity.
  4. treatment of risks factors.
  5. control of coronory heart disese.
  1. 1] Fatigue
  2. weakness
  3. sudden vision changes
  4. tingling or numbness in hands and feet
  5. Dry skin
  6. sores that heal slowley
  7. type-1 diabetes may also have nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pains associated with it.

The best diagnosis tests…..

  • Fasting blood glucose
  • Random blood glucose
  • Fast prandial blood glucose
  • Glycosylated Hb
  • Glycosylated albumin
  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Ketoneuria
  • Proteinuria



1] the main goal of the dietary management is to help diabetic client to improve metabolic control by making changes in the nutrition habits. It includes:

  • Improving blood glucose and lipid levels
  • providing daily food intake plan
  • help in weight management
  • providing adequate nutrition

2] Promote regular physical activity, exercises lower the blood glucose byincreasing carbonhydrate management. weight reduction, increase in unsulin sensitivity, maintaining the insulin levels, lower B.P, reduces stress and tension.


1] A balanced nutritinal plan is important for all patients. It should include community resources, nutrient, follow patient’s appetite.

2] protein should be included in the diet. High protein intake, increases renal functioning and glomerulus filtration rates.

3] Fat levels should be maintained. Daily cholestrol intake should be mentioned in the diet. Limit thesaturated fat and the cholestrol.

4] Carbohydrates: it is an important to take CHO also, so that energy requirement of the body should be managed.

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